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Влад и мир про Политов: Небо в огне. Штурмовик из будущего (Боевая фантастика)

Автор с мозгами совсем не дружит. Сплошная лапша и противоречия. Для автора, что космос, что атмосфера всё едино. Оказывает пилотировать самолет проще пареной репы, тупо взлетай против ветра. Ещё бы ветер дул всегда на встречу посадочной полосе. И с чего вдруг инопланетянин говорит по русски, штурмует колонну фашистов, да ещё был сбит примитивным оружием, если с его слов ему без разница кто есть кто. Типа в космосе можно летать среди

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Serg55 про Минин: Камень. Книга Девятая (Городское фэнтези)

понравилось, ГГ растет... Автору респект...

Рейтинг: +1 ( 1 за, 0 против).
Serg55 про Бушков: Нежный взгляд волчицы. Мир без теней. (Героическая фантастика)

непонятно, одна и та же книга, а идет под разными номерами?

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pva2408 про Велтистов: Рэсси - неуловимый друг (Социальная фантастика)

Ох и нравилась мне серия про Электроника, когда детенышем мелким был. Несколько раз перечитывал.

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vovih1 про Бутырская: Сага о Кае Эрлингссоне. Трилогия (Самиздат, сетевая литература)

Будем ждать пока напишут 4 том, а может и более

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vovih1 про Кори: Падение Левиафана (Боевая фантастика)

Galina_cool, зачем заливать эти огрызки, на литрес есть полная версия. залейте ее

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Влад и мир про Шарапов: На той стороне (Приключения)

Сюжет в принципе мог быть интересным, но не раскрывается. ГГ движется по течению, ведёт себя очень глупо, особенно в бою. Автор во время остроты ситуации и когда мгновение решает всё, начинает описывать как ГГ требует оплаты, а потом автор только и пишет, там не успеваю, тут не успеваю. В общем глупость ГГ и хаос ситуаций. Например ГГ выгнали силой из города и долго преследовали, чуть не убив и после этого он на полном серьёзе собирается

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Social capitalism as the only true socio-economic system [Михаил Озеровский] (fb2) читать онлайн

- Social capitalism as the only true socio-economic system 726 Кб, 7с.  (читать) (читать постранично) (скачать fb2) - Михаил Озеровский

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Михаил Озеровский Social capitalism as the only true socio-economic system

The original article is written in Russian. This is a translation of the article.

Economic socialism.

The USSR. The 1930s and the rise of the planned economy under Stalin. All Stalinists unanimously repeat that Stalin is an economic genius. This is true. Stalin was the ruler who kept the socialist economy afloat by making it rigidly centralized. According to Soviet statistics, by 1937 the industrialization and collectivization of agriculture, social and cultural revolutions had taken place in the USSR. The rate of development of the country doubled and exceeded more than 25% in industry, more than 6,000 new plants and factories were built. The USSR came in first place in Europe in terms of gross industrial output and second in the world after the United States. Believe such statistics or not, you decide.

The socialist economy cannot live without rigid discipline. This has shown time. The miracle that Stalin created could not last long. Forces are depleted, and not every ruler could control the economy of the whole country. And any failure in the management of the state of the socialist economy leads to its collapse.

The second problem of the planned economic system is that, unlike capitalism, where demand immediately gives rise to supply, socialism cannot quickly respond to the needs of society.

The People’s Republic of China, its methods of transition from economic socialism to state capitalism with a socialist superstructure – social capitalism.

Let’s take China now. When China was a socialist state, the GDP created by state-owned enterprises has steadily declined, from 55% in 1998 to 41% in 2008 and 30% in 2011. China understood that the socialist economy is not efficient and that it is necessary to move on to capitalism.

I think there was no doubt in choosing between 2 types of capitalism – only state capitalism was suitable for China. By the way, the leader of the proletariat, V.I. Lenin, believed that state capitalism would help the young Soviet Republic to move to socialism. In China, the opposite happened. In transitioning to state capitalism, the Communist Party of China abandoned the socialist superstructure, promising the people that the life of the proletariat would not change in the transition to capitalism. The current economy consists of capitalist monopolies, which are not only regulated by the state, but also carry out the conceived ideas of China’s five-year economic plan. Thanks to capitalism, China receives investments from all over the world, and mainly from ethnic Chinese abroad. That is why China’s infrastructure is developing at a tremendous pace. For example, as of the end of 2017, China had 4.77 million km of roads, including 136.5 thousand km of highways, according to the latter indicator, the country was in first place in the world.

State and liberal capitalism.

What is the difference between liberal and state capitalism? When capitalism is not regulated by the state, this can lead to an oversupply and lost demand. We observed unregulated capitalism in the USA in the 1920s. The oversupply caused the crisis we know as the Great Depression. The oversupply, of course, was the result of overcompetition and the eternal struggle for the market. It was then that the idea of the economist John Keynes arose that the state should actively help the economy – give people money, reduce taxes, finance large projects that provide employment. That was, in my opinion, the first idea of state capitalism in the United States. Under liberal capitalism, the working class is the most exploited, and power usually passes to the oligarchs. With such an economic system, we have low wages and pensions. Social benefits are also unworthy.

Russian Federation: from the strict planned economy of the USSR to free oligarchic capitalism.

Russia, unlike China, made a big mistake. First, the idea of transition to capitalism was imposed on the people, which was not a good solution. Secondly, unlike China, which was moving to capitalism under the rule of the CCP, while having a detailed and understandable plan for further development, Russia has moved to state-oligarchic capitalism. Economic power was in the hands of some oligarchs who “legally” plundered the country.

Under Putin, we see a smooth transition from the liberal economy of the 2000s to state capitalism, which is by far the only viable economic system.

Why?

Under economic liberalism, there is an oversupply and we see the frenzied exploitation of the workers. Non-intervention in the state’s economy can lead to inflation and a crisis, while the economic elites continue to grow rich.

Under economic socialism, there is a shortage of supply, this caused a shortage of goods in the USSR. It cannot exist for a long time, because such an economic system is difficult to keep on its feet, because it needs centralization and strict control. Thus, the planned economy also leads to a crisis.

It is important to note which superstructure must remain in society. Regardless of the economy, the superstructure must be socialist. An example of this is the same China: the Chinese receive free apartments and more or less decent wages. After all, no matter what the country was, there are always more workers. And their discontent can lead to irreversible consequences.

What is social capitalism anyway?

Here we come to the concept of social capitalism. Its essence is that workers do not work for state-owned enterprises, as in a planned economy, but for capitalists who work not only for themselves, but also for the state, which, in turn, provides for all its citizens. In this case, the capitalists act as assistants to the state. Social capitalism implies a limited export of capital and a restriction of foreign imports. Under this economic system, a citizen invests in Russia not with the ruble, but with labor. The “ruble” will be made to the state by the capitalists, for whom the working class will work. Of course, to avoid the difference between “poor” and “rich” in this case will not work. One way or another, the middle class will live better and calmer, while the capitalists will also be richer, but more modest than under free capitalism.

Under socialist capitalism, it is better to have a one-party system, or the power of one party, which will have a systemic opposition. All this in order to have a 5- or 10-year plan with you and keep the capitalists under control, to monitor the observance of this plan.

For the most part, social capitalism is supported by social conservatives. Social capitalists claim that it is the macroeconomics that should be in the hands of the state, and it is important not to forget about the social aspects. The ideologists of social capitalism are of the opinion that supporting the poor increases productivity. With the reduction of poverty, the size of the capital of market participants increases, which is an indisputable truth.

The political system under social capitalism.

Speaking about such an economic system, I highlighted the fact that, preferably, we need a system in which one party would be the leading one, but at the same time there would be some kind of systemic opposition. All this is in order for the economy to develop more efficiently.

What should this party be like? What ideology should it have?

The ideological basis must be accompanied by a socialist "backup" – there is no other way, because the very essence of social capitalism consists in its "social" factor, helping citizens, providing them with absolutely everything.

But is it worth returning to the unified Communist Party? The answer is no. The CPSU discredited itself with its illogical over-totalitarianism. It is important to note that Lenin very quickly legalized some "not quite normal" freedoms. Another major mistake of socialism is the barbaric attitude to religion. After all, traditional values should form the basis of society.

We do not take Liberal Democratic parties – they will not be able to build authoritarianism with elements of democracy.

I believe that in this situation, the leading party should have a social-conservative, or better, conservative-socialist ideology. What is its essence?

It's simple: we take the best of socialism and add to it traditional thinking, a conservative type of society. There will be no notorious "Soviets" and the Soviet type of thinking. Russia must remain Russia, even under the conservative-socialist system. I would attribute this ideology to center-left, because authoritarianism with elements of democracy is, and it will be mostly left-wing. Public opinion is right, as it should be, and will be right. The "right" part of the ideology will solve the migration issue, and will support religions, unlike "classical socialism".

And which country already has such an ideological system? Yes, we are going back to China again. According to the constitution, they have "socialism with Chinese specifics." That is, the PRC combines socialism and their national, sovereign traditions. Russian conservative socialism can truly be called, or "with Russian specifics." It will be socialism, which will focus on Russian traditions, conservative society, religiosity, but at the same time will carry its function of socialism.

Therefore, the ideal party would be the "Conservative Social Capitalist Party of Russia (CSCPR)". Let me remind you that there should be a systemic opposition. Young people should have a choice which party to join, but the most prestigious thing should be joining the KSKPR.

By the way, another disadvantage of the communist system is that there was no alternative, except for a pioneer-Komsomol member-candidate for the CPSU-a member of the CPSU. This demotivated the youth.

Now there are other extremes. According to the Levada Center, 80% of young people are not interested in politics at all. There are a lot of youth organizations, there are as many alternatives as you like, but they do not have weight in society, such as the Komsomol, for example. Have you ever heard of the Young Guard from United Russia? Komsomol, but only from the Communist Party, which is nowhere to be seen now?

Problems of transition to socialist capitalism now. (In Russia)

Now “Soviet cadres” are in power. These are people of the old school, brought up in totalitarianism, so many of them adhere to authoritarian views. Many of today’s billionaires are state capitalists. Now there is a transition to this economic system, but there are two problems: the first of them is that under liberal capitalism the transition to the state takes longer if we started the transition from a planned economy to state capitalism. The second problem is that no socialist superstructure is envisaged, and without it, state capitalism is not so effective.

Who will build social capitalism?

On the one hand, there is no one but the “Soviet people” to build social capitalism. After all, it was they who experienced the whole essence of liberal, oligarchic capitalism and a planned economy. It is the “Soviet people” who will strive to establish social capitalism, for this system is the very “third way” that we are looking for.

On the other hand, youth is the future of Russia. Despite the fact that the younger generation is not enlightened, they are not told about political and economic processes, examples are very rarely given in the course of social science textbooks, and little is given to economics, the most important, basic aspects of this science are considered, and economic systems go through very little, I am sure that in 15–20 years we will have excellent graduates of Russian economic faculties, who, perhaps, will be able to switch to this economic system much faster and with better quality.

In conclusion, I would like to say that it is socialist capitalism that is the way out of economic one-sidedness, which was clearly demonstrated by the examples of not only China, but also Sweden. Over the course of several decades of the 20th century, the Scandinavian country turned from a poor agrarian country into one of the richest and most highly developed industrial powers. And in Russia, social capitalism will help create the strongest economy in the world.


Оглавление

  • Economic socialism.
  • The People’s Republic of China, its methods of transition from economic socialism to state capitalism with a socialist superstructure – social capitalism.
  • State and liberal capitalism.
  • Russian Federation: from the strict planned economy of the USSR to free oligarchic capitalism.
  • Why?
  • What is social capitalism anyway?
  • The political system under social capitalism.
  • Problems of transition to socialist capitalism now. (In Russia)
  • Who will build social capitalism?